Hellenismo

The true roots of Europe
Le vere radici dell'Europa

September 13, 2014 3:33 pm
Commento al Timeo - I Libro, Conclusione
1:21 pm
Ἐνάτη Μεσοῦντος/ Ἐνάτη ἐπὶ δέκα / Ἐννεακαιδεκάτη, XIX day From today’s sunset: nineteenth day of Boedromion. Iakchos- day of the procession’ (from the nineteenth to the twentieth day of Boedromion) The initiates, each one along with his/her mystagogos, meet at the Kerameikos, between the Dipylon and the Sacred Gate- where the Hiera Odos begins- where there is the Pompaion. The Eleusinian priests carry the Hierà from the Eleusinion to the Sacred Gate where the meeting is; the armed epheboi, organized by their kosmetes, escort back the procession. “According to the same rules, the 19th of the month of Boedromion it has to be ordained to the cosmete of the epheboi to lead them again to Eleusis, to act as escort to the sacred objects in the same form; the cosmete in office during the year has to ensure that these rules are never overlooked and that there is never negligence in the acts of piety dedicated to the Two Goddesses; all the youths, wearing full armor, crowned with a wreath of myrtle, have to escort advancing in formation; since it has been given to the youths the order to travel this long road, it’s righteous that they take part in the sacrifices, and the libations and the choral songs that take place during the journey, so that the transport of the sacred objects is carried out with an effective supervision and with a very long procession , and the youths, following the practices of worship devoted to the deity by the City, become more pious men … “ The great procession to Eleusis, bearing the God Iakchos in front, begins- wearing festive garments and garlands of myrtle on their heads, carrying bunches of myrtle twigs and bundles of provisions attached to the end of sticks, the mystai start the journey toward Eleusis in a joyous mood. “The initiates used a myrtle-crown, and not of ivy…because Demeter liked the myrtle and because it was consecrated to the Chthonian Gods.” Much can be learned of this celebration from the chorus’s imitation of them in Aristophanes’ comedy, The Frogs… “He declared that after the army of Xerxes had, in the absence of the Athenians, wasted Attica, he chanced to be with Demaratus the Lacedaemonian in the Thriasian plain, and that while there, he saw a cloud of dust advancing from Eleusis, such as a host of thirty thousand men might raise. As he and his companion were wondering who the men, from whom the dust arose, could possibly be, a sound of voices reached his ear, and he thought that he recognised the mystic hymn to Bacchus. Now Demaratus was unacquainted with the rites of Eleusis, and so he inquired of Dicaeus what the voices were saying. Dicaeus made answer- “O Demaratus! beyond a doubt some mighty calamity is about to befall the king’s army! For it is manifest, inasmuch as Attica is deserted by its inhabitants, that the sound which we have heard is an unearthly one, and is now upon its way from Eleusis to aid the Athenians and their confederates.” (Er. VIII 65) “At this stage of the struggle they say that a great light flamed out from Eleusis, and an echoing cry filled the Thriasian plain down to the sea, as of multitudes of men together conducting the mystic Iacchus in procession. Then out of the shouting throng a cloud seemed to lift itself slowly from the earth, pass out seawards, and settle down upon the triremes. Others fancied they saw apparitions and shapes of armed men coming from Aegina with their hands stretched out to protect the Hellenic triremes. These, they conjectured, were the Aeacidae, who had been prayerfully invoked before the battle to come to their aid.” (Plut. - Them. 15) Many shrines to be visited and many sacrifices to be made during the journey along the Sacred Way - as for example… - Sanctuary of Apollo - Temple of Aphrodite - Rheitoi (apotropaic rites of the Krokonidai: they put on each initiate a wool band of the color of the crocus, on the right hand and left feet- to avert the evil-eye). “The mystai bind their right hand and the left foot with a piece of cloth and this is called ‘to crown with saffron’.” (Anecd. graec. P. 273, 25) - Eleusinian Kephisos- Gephyrismoi - “Gephyristai: mockers, because at Eleusis, sitting on the parapet of the bridge, they mocked the passers-by.” “.. Gephyris.. a hooded man who, by sitting there in the course of the Mysteries of Eleusis, directed coarse jokes towards the illustrious citizens, indicating them by name.” - Arrival to the Sanctuary by night (already Boedromion 20):  Welcome to Iakchos, dances around the Kallichoron well and kernophories. (cfr. IG II2 1078; Arist. Ranae 324ff; Plut. Phoc. 28, Cam. 19; Esych. s.v. Gephyris, gephyristés; Tzetzes ad Arist. Ran. 330a; Eur. Ion 1076; Dione Cris. Or. 12, 33) (Iakchos, detail from the Ninnion tablet from Eleusis; ca. 370 BC)

Ἐνάτη Μεσοῦντος/ Ἐνάτη ἐπὶ δέκα / Ἐννεακαιδεκάτη, XIX day
From today’s sunset: nineteenth day of Boedromion.
Iakchos- day of the procession’ (from the nineteenth to the twentieth day of Boedromion)

The initiates, each one along with his/her mystagogos, meet at the Kerameikos, between the Dipylon and the Sacred Gate- where the Hiera Odos begins- where there is the Pompaion. The Eleusinian priests carry the Hierà from the Eleusinion to the Sacred Gate where the meeting is; the armed epheboi, organized by their kosmetes, escort back the procession.
“According to the same rules, the 19th of the month of Boedromion it has to be ordained to the cosmete of the epheboi to lead them again to Eleusis, to act as escort to the sacred objects in the same form; the cosmete in office during the year has to ensure that these rules are never overlooked and that there is never negligence in the acts of piety dedicated to the Two Goddesses; all the youths, wearing full armor, crowned with a wreath of myrtle, have to escort advancing in formation; since it has been given to the youths the order to travel this long road, it’s righteous that they take part in the sacrifices, and the libations and the choral songs that take place during the journey, so that the transport of the sacred objects is carried out with an effective supervision and with a very long procession , and the youths, following the practices of worship devoted to the deity by the City, become more pious men … “

The great procession to Eleusis, bearing the God Iakchos in front, begins- wearing festive garments and garlands of myrtle on their heads, carrying bunches of myrtle twigs and bundles of provisions attached to the end of sticks, the mystai start the journey toward Eleusis in a joyous mood. “The initiates used a myrtle-crown, and not of ivy…because Demeter liked the myrtle and because it was consecrated to the Chthonian Gods.”
Much can be learned of this celebration from the chorus’s imitation of them in Aristophanes’ comedy, The Frogs…

“He declared that after the army of Xerxes had, in the absence of the Athenians, wasted Attica, he chanced to be with Demaratus the Lacedaemonian in the Thriasian plain, and that while there, he saw a cloud of dust advancing from Eleusis, such as a host of thirty thousand men might raise. As he and his companion were wondering who the men, from whom the dust arose, could possibly be, a sound of voices reached his ear, and he thought that he recognised the mystic hymn to Bacchus. Now Demaratus was unacquainted with the rites of Eleusis, and so he inquired of Dicaeus what the voices were saying. Dicaeus made answer- “O Demaratus! beyond a doubt some mighty calamity is about to befall the king’s army! For it is manifest, inasmuch as Attica is deserted by its inhabitants, that the sound which we have heard is an unearthly one, and is now upon its way from Eleusis to aid the Athenians and their confederates.”
(Er. VIII 65)

“At this stage of the struggle they say that a great light flamed out from Eleusis, and an echoing cry filled the Thriasian plain down to the sea, as of multitudes of men together conducting the mystic Iacchus in procession. Then out of the shouting throng a cloud seemed to lift itself slowly from the earth, pass out seawards, and settle down upon the triremes. Others fancied they saw apparitions and shapes of armed men coming from Aegina with their hands stretched out to protect the Hellenic triremes. These, they conjectured, were the Aeacidae, who had been prayerfully invoked before the battle to come to their aid.”
(Plut. - Them. 15)

Many shrines to be visited and many sacrifices to be made during the journey along the Sacred Way - as for example…

- Sanctuary of Apollo

- Temple of Aphrodite

- Rheitoi (apotropaic rites of the Krokonidai: they put on each initiate a wool band of the color of the crocus, on the right hand and left feet- to avert the evil-eye). “The mystai bind their right hand and the left foot with a piece of cloth and this is called ‘to crown with saffron’.” (Anecd. graec. P. 273, 25)

- Eleusinian Kephisos- Gephyrismoi - “Gephyristai: mockers, because at Eleusis, sitting on the parapet of the bridge, they mocked the passers-by.” “.. Gephyris.. a hooded man who, by sitting there in the course of the Mysteries of Eleusis, directed coarse jokes towards the illustrious citizens, indicating them by name.”

- Arrival to the Sanctuary by night (already Boedromion 20):

Welcome to Iakchos, dances around the Kallichoron well and kernophories.

(cfr. IG II2 1078; Arist. Ranae 324ff; Plut. Phoc. 28, Cam. 19; Esych. s.v. Gephyris, gephyristés; Tzetzes ad Arist. Ran. 330a; Eur. Ion 1076; Dione Cris. Or. 12, 33)

(Iakchos, detail from the Ninnion tablet from Eleusis; ca. 370 BC)

September 12, 2014 8:27 am
Ὀγδόη Μεσοῦντος/ Ὀγδόη ἐπὶ δέκα / Όκτωκαιδεκάτη, XVIII day From today’s sunset: eighteenth day of Boedromion. ‘Epidauria’ Epidauria, or Asklepieia, the annual festival of Asklepios in Athens. According to Pausanias and Philostratos, Asklepios originally came to Athens on this day to be initiated into the Mysteries, and, because He was late, an extra festival day was created to accommodate him: “The Athenians say that they initiated Asklepios into their Mysteries on that day, and since that time they paid divine honors to Him.” “It was then the day of the Epidaurian festival, at which it is customary for the Athenians to hold the initiation at a second sacrifice after both proclamation and victims have been offered; and this custom was instituted in honor of Asklepios, because they still initiated him when he arrived from Epidauros too late for the Mysteries.” Accordingly, this extra day allows late arrivals to join the festival. Festival linked with the establishment of the cult of Asklepios and Hygeia in Athens: “Telemachos founded the sanctuary and altar to Asklepios first, and Hygeia, the sons of Asklepios and His daughters…coming up from Zea during the Great Mysteries, Asklepios was conveyed to the Eleusinion; and having sent for servants at his own expenses, Telemachos brought Him here on a wagon, in accordance with an oracle; at the same time came Hygeia; and so the whole sanctuary was established in the archonship of Astyphilos of Kydantidai.” First, there is a pannychis in honor of Asklepios, in the Eleusinion and in the temple of Asklepios; following a procession (from Zea to the temple of Asklepios?), there is a second major sacrifice- “The Archon Basileus organizes the procession in honor of Asklepios, when the initiates spend the night staying awake…” A sacrifice and procession were thus established for the Epidauria, “on the day when the mystai were keeping at home.” The mystai remain at their homes in meditation, preparing themselves for the following days. “the son of Nikokrates, of Phlya, who was priest of Asklepios and Hygieia in the year of the archonship of Timarchos, performed in fair and pious fashion the initial sacrifices of the year to Asklepios and Hygieia and the other Gods to whom it was an ancestral custom to make offerings, and whereas at the Asklepieia, the Epidauria, and the Heroa he sacrificed bulls in the Asklepios sanctuary in town and performed the night-festivals of these celebrations; moreover, having made sacrifices in behalf of the Council and the Demos and the children and the women, he reported in all cases to the Council that the sacrifices had been favourable and that they assured safety…” Private sacrificial calendar: a perfect sacrifice to Dionysos and to all the other Gods (cfr. Vit. Apoll. iv. 18; Pausanias 2.26.8; IG II2 974,1367, 4960 ; Herod. v. 82; Arist. Or. XXXXVII 6; Arist. Ath. Pol. 56.4) (Votive relief in pentelic marble depicting Asclepius with his divine family and a group of worshippers. 400-350 BC. National Archaeological Museum. Athens.)

Ὀγδόη Μεσοῦντος/ Ὀγδόη ἐπὶ δέκα / Όκτωκαιδεκάτη, XVIII day
From today’s sunset: eighteenth day of Boedromion.
‘Epidauria’

Epidauria, or Asklepieia, the annual festival of Asklepios in Athens. According to Pausanias and Philostratos, Asklepios originally came to Athens on this day to be initiated into the Mysteries, and, because He was late, an extra festival day was created to accommodate him: “The Athenians say that they initiated Asklepios into their Mysteries on that day, and since that time they paid divine honors to Him.”

“It was then the day of the Epidaurian festival, at which it is customary for the Athenians to hold the initiation at a second sacrifice after both proclamation and victims have been offered; and this custom was instituted in honor of Asklepios, because they still initiated him when he arrived from Epidauros too late for the Mysteries.”

Accordingly, this extra day allows late arrivals to join the festival.

Festival linked with the establishment of the cult of Asklepios and Hygeia in Athens: “Telemachos founded the sanctuary and altar to Asklepios first, and Hygeia, the sons of Asklepios and His daughters…coming up from Zea during the Great Mysteries, Asklepios was conveyed to the Eleusinion; and having sent for servants at his own expenses, Telemachos brought Him here on a wagon, in accordance with an oracle; at the same time came Hygeia; and so the whole sanctuary was established in the archonship of Astyphilos of Kydantidai.”

First, there is a pannychis in honor of Asklepios, in the Eleusinion and in the temple of Asklepios; following a procession (from Zea to the temple of Asklepios?), there is a second major sacrifice- “The Archon Basileus organizes the procession in honor of Asklepios, when the initiates spend the night staying awake…”

A sacrifice and procession were thus established for the Epidauria, “on the day when the mystai were keeping at home.” The mystai remain at their homes in meditation, preparing themselves for the following days.

“the son of Nikokrates, of Phlya, who was priest of Asklepios and Hygieia in the year of the archonship of Timarchos, performed in fair and pious fashion the initial sacrifices of the year to Asklepios and Hygieia and the other Gods to whom it was an ancestral custom to make offerings, and whereas at the Asklepieia, the Epidauria, and the Heroa he sacrificed bulls in the Asklepios sanctuary in town and performed the night-festivals of these celebrations; moreover, having made sacrifices in behalf of the Council and the Demos and the children and the women, he reported in all cases to the Council that the sacrifices had been favourable and that they assured safety…”

Private sacrificial calendar: a perfect sacrifice to Dionysos and to all the other Gods

(cfr. Vit. Apoll. iv. 18; Pausanias 2.26.8; IG II2 974,1367, 4960 ; Herod. v. 82; Arist. Or. XXXXVII 6; Arist. Ath. Pol. 56.4)

(Votive relief in pentelic marble depicting Asclepius with his divine family and a group of worshippers. 400-350 BC. National Archaeological Museum. Athens.)

September 11, 2014 4:39 pm
Ἑβδόμη Μεσοῦντος/ Ἑβδóμη ἐπὶ δέκα / Ἑπτακαιδεκάτη, XVII day From today’s sunset: seventeenth day of Boedromion. ‘Hiereia Deuro- Hither the victims’ The day of the Mysteries on which the Archon Basileus and the epimeletai offer the community sacrifices to the Two Goddesses at the Eleusinion in the City; at all these sacrifices the theoroi of foreign states, who have sent the aparchai, seem to have taken part. Private sacrifices to Demeter and Kore: “To Demeter and Kore perfect female pigs”. About the sacrifices and aparchai: “…to the Two Goddesses shall be offered the first fruits of the earth, according to the traditions of the homeland and the Oracle of Delphi to the Athenians…the Hierophant and the Dadouchos impose that the Hellenes offer, in occasion of the Mysteries, the first fruits of the earth, according to the traditions of the homeland and the Oracle of Delphi to the Athenians…to be offered in sacrifice the pelanos, as indicated by the Eumolpidai, a trittoa boarchos (triple sacrifice beginning with a bovid) with gold-plated horns for each one of the Two Goddesses, barley and wheat for Triptolemos and the God and for the Goddess and for Eubulos a perfect victim for each one of Them, and for Athena an ox with gold-plated horns; the hieropoioi and the assembly have to consacrate as votive offerings the rest of the offered barley and wheat…from this may come many good things and fertility and plenty for those who are not found guilty against the Athenians, Athens and the Two Goddesses.” (see IG II2 76; 1367; Lys. Andoc. 4; Eur. Suppl. 173) *** “Throw out Demeter’s holy grain upon the well-rolled threshing floor on the seventh of the mid-month. Let the woodman cut beams for house building and plenty of ships’ timbers, such as are suitable for ships.” The scholia add: “If, as Orpheus says, the seventeenth day is dedicated to Ate, and therefore it is suitable for cutting the wood and for stripping the fruit from its coverings, also Hesiod, not without love for Muses, consecrated the day to these works.” Erga, 805-808 (Worshippers approach Demeter and Persephone. Dated to 5th century BC. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia…)

Ἑβδόμη Μεσοῦντος/ Ἑβδóμη ἐπὶ δέκα / Ἑπτακαιδεκάτη, XVII day
From today’s sunset: seventeenth day of Boedromion.

‘Hiereia Deuro- Hither the victims’
The day of the Mysteries on which the Archon Basileus and the epimeletai offer the community sacrifices to the Two Goddesses at the Eleusinion in the City; at all these sacrifices the theoroi of foreign states, who have sent the aparchai, seem to have taken part.

Private sacrifices to Demeter and Kore: “To Demeter and Kore perfect female pigs”.

About the sacrifices and aparchai: “…to the Two Goddesses shall be offered the first fruits of the earth, according to the traditions of the homeland and the Oracle of Delphi to the Athenians…the Hierophant and the Dadouchos impose that the Hellenes offer, in occasion of the Mysteries, the first fruits of the earth, according to the traditions of the homeland and the Oracle of Delphi to the Athenians…to be offered in sacrifice the pelanos, as indicated by the Eumolpidai, a trittoa boarchos (triple sacrifice beginning with a bovid) with gold-plated horns for each one of the Two Goddesses, barley and wheat for Triptolemos and the God and for the Goddess and for Eubulos a perfect victim for each one of Them, and for Athena an ox with gold-plated horns; the hieropoioi and the assembly have to consacrate as votive offerings the rest of the offered barley and wheat…from this may come many good things and fertility and plenty for those who are not found guilty against the Athenians, Athens and the Two Goddesses.”
(see IG II2 76; 1367; Lys. Andoc. 4; Eur. Suppl. 173)

***

“Throw out Demeter’s holy grain upon the well-rolled threshing floor on the seventh of the mid-month. Let the woodman cut beams for house building and plenty of ships’ timbers, such as are suitable for ships.” The scholia add: “If, as Orpheus says, the seventeenth day is dedicated to Ate, and therefore it is suitable for cutting the wood and for stripping the fruit from its coverings, also Hesiod, not without love for Muses, consecrated the day to these works.”
Erga, 805-808

(Worshippers approach Demeter and Persephone. Dated to 5th century BC. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia…)

9:22 am

According to the religious calendar, from yesterday’s sunset and, particularly, from this dawn, it is the day to be dedicated to all kind of purifications - and obviously, not only of the bodies, as explained perfectly here: “The Purifications are divided into two parts, one concerning itself with the physical body, and the other with the “luminous body.” The deliverance of the Soul is accomplished by “Dialectics, which science is the intimate inspection of beings.” Of the two former, one purifies through diet and the whole management and usage of the mortal body; and the other employs the Mathematical Sciences, Meditation, and Religious Ceremonies. All three Purifications must be accomplished if man would become free, and Godlike. It is to be noted that they deal with (1) the body, (2) the emotions and lower mind, and (3) the higher mind.” NOTES ON THE GOLDEN VERSES OF PYTHAGORAS FROM THE COMMENTARIES OF HIEROCLES, 67

[Three places very much ‘frequented’ during this day of the Mysteries (Halade mystai- initiates to the sea’): the sea-shore of Pireos; a view of the sacred lake of Persephone, and the sea-shore of Eleusis]

September 10, 2014 4:59 pm
Demeter, Kore, Iakchos; ‘Lovatelli urn’ detail

Demeter, Kore, Iakchos; ‘Lovatelli urn’ detail

1:02 pm
Ἕκτη Μεσοῦντος/ Ἕκτη ἐπὶ δέκα /Ἑκκαιδεκάτη, XVI day From today’s sunset: sixteenth day of Boedromion. ‘Elasis’ (from Halade mystai- initiates to the sea’) - “Halade mystai: a day of the Mysteries celebrated in Athens.” ‘Halade mystai’ is the command of the Hierophant. At dawn, the initiates, each along with his/her mystagogos, go down to the sea-shore of Phaleros or Pireos (or at the Rheitoi, or in Eleusis), to purify themselves and the piglets they have to sacrifice to Demeter on their return to Athens (“as a mystic initiate was washing a pig in the harbour of Cantharus”). This day is associated then with purifications of all kinds (sea-water, water from the Rheitoi lakes, piglets’ blood, Dios koidion, etc…) “Chabrias won the naval battle of Naxos on the sixteenth day of Boedromion, considering it as an auspicious day for that battle, because it was one of the days during which were celebrated the Mysteries…Chabrias had as ally the cry ‘initiates to the sea’.” “So, to those that approach the Holy Celebrations of the Mysteries, there are appointed purifications and the laying aside of the garments worn before…” (Plotinus, First Ennead VI, 7) (See Hesychius, s.v. halade mystai; Plutarch, Phokion 28.3, de Glor. Ath. 349; Mylonas 1961, pp. 249-50; Polyaenos 3.11.2; Etym. M. s. v.: hiera hodos; Suda s.v. Dios koidion) (A marble urn from the early Roman imperial period, based on an Alexandrian model of the late Hellenistic era - the ‘Lovatelli urn’. It depicts the initiation of Herakles into the Eleusinian Mysteries. Detail of the purification rite. National Museum of Rome, Palazzo Massimo)

Ἕκτη Μεσοῦντος/ Ἕκτη ἐπὶ δέκα /Ἑκκαιδεκάτη, XVI day
From today’s sunset: sixteenth day of Boedromion.
‘Elasis’ (from Halade mystai- initiates to the sea’) - “Halade mystai: a day of the Mysteries celebrated in Athens.”

‘Halade mystai’ is the command of the Hierophant. At dawn, the initiates, each along with his/her mystagogos, go down to the sea-shore of Phaleros or Pireos (or at the Rheitoi, or in Eleusis), to purify themselves and the piglets they have to sacrifice to Demeter on their return to Athens (“as a mystic initiate was washing a pig in the harbour of Cantharus”). This day is associated then with purifications of all kinds (sea-water, water from the Rheitoi lakes, piglets’ blood, Dios koidion, etc…)

“Chabrias won the naval battle of Naxos on the sixteenth day of Boedromion, considering it as an auspicious day for that battle, because it was one of the days during which were celebrated the Mysteries…Chabrias had as ally the cry ‘initiates to the sea’.”

“So, to those that approach the Holy Celebrations of the Mysteries, there are appointed purifications and the laying aside of the garments worn before…”
(Plotinus, First Ennead VI, 7)

(See Hesychius, s.v. halade mystai; Plutarch, Phokion 28.3, de Glor. Ath. 349; Mylonas 1961, pp. 249-50; Polyaenos 3.11.2; Etym. M. s. v.: hiera hodos; Suda s.v. Dios koidion)

(A marble urn from the early Roman imperial period, based on an Alexandrian model of the late Hellenistic era - the ‘Lovatelli urn’. It depicts the initiation of Herakles into the Eleusinian Mysteries. Detail of the purification rite. National Museum of Rome, Palazzo Massimo)

September 9, 2014 12:54 pm
Πέμπτη Μεσοῦντος/ Πέμπτη ἐπὶ δέκα / Πεντεκαιδεκάτη, XV day From today’s sunset: fifteenth day of Boedromion. Full Moon ‘The day of the gathering’. Agyrmós- Prorresis (formal declaration bidding depart to those not qualified): this is the first ‘official’ day of the Mysteries. The Archon Basileus calls the gathering (agyrmós) in the Stoa Poikile, in Agorà, of those already initiated into the Lesser Mysteries of Agrai. In the presence of the Hierophant and the Dadouchos, the Sacred Herald delivers the formal proclamation (prorresis). “The leader of the mystai proclaimed to the assembly that they must be pure in hands and soul and of Hellenic speech.” “Whoever is pure from all stain and whose soul is conscious of no sin and who has lived a good and just life.” “Come ye all who are pure of hands and of intelligible speech.” “If there is someone who is not initiated into the venerable initiations, or who is atheist, or who has not a pure disposition, get out from the sacred ceremonies.” “Citizens’ Assembly … the first day of the Mysteries.” Obligation to fast during the day: “fasting on the sacred days of the Rarian Demeter” but “because She broke Her fast at nightfall, the initiates time their meal by the appearance of the stars.” “…to the Mother, the first-born Earth, the Kybeleian Kore said: …of Demeter…o Zeus who see everything… o Helios, o Fire who go across all the cities, when to the Goddesses of victory and to the Goddesses of fate and together with the Moira which oversees all things You appeared, You increases the brightness, shining Daimon, with Your dominion; by You everything can be subdued, everything supported, everything blazed; everywhere we have to endure the works of the Moira. Lead me, O Fire, to the Mother, if I can resist fasting, and to accomplish a fast of seven nights, or after the day. For You I have fasted for seven days, Olympian Zeus and Helios who see everything……” Sicilian golden tablet- Otto Kern, Orphicorum fragmenta fr. 47 Registration of the initiates and payment of the fees that go to the various Eleusinian priests and priestesses. (Hesychius, s.v. agyrmos ; Schol. on Aristoph. Ran. 369; Poll. viii. 90; Call. Aetia 10; Ovid Fasti 530) (Votive relief dedicated to Demeter and Kore by a Hierophant- “on the left Demeter and Kore, in a classicizing style, and on the right the hierophant from Hagnous, in a portrait style, which E. Harrison characterizes as early Antonine…This relief is the only certain Attic representation of a hierophant, and as such it assumes great importance.” cf. K. Clinton “The Sacred Officials of the Eleusinian Mysteries”)

Πέμπτη Μεσοῦντος/ Πέμπτη ἐπὶ δέκα / Πεντεκαιδεκάτη, XV day
From today’s sunset: fifteenth day of Boedromion.
Full Moon
‘The day of the gathering’. Agyrmós- Prorresis (formal declaration bidding depart to those not qualified): this is the first ‘official’ day of the Mysteries. The Archon Basileus calls the gathering (agyrmós) in the Stoa Poikile, in Agorà, of those already initiated into the Lesser Mysteries of Agrai. In the presence of the Hierophant and the Dadouchos, the Sacred Herald delivers the formal proclamation (prorresis).

“The leader of the mystai proclaimed to the assembly that they must be pure in hands and soul and of Hellenic speech.”

“Whoever is pure from all stain and whose soul is conscious of no sin and who has lived a good and just life.”

“Come ye all who are pure of hands and of intelligible speech.”

“If there is someone who is not initiated into the venerable initiations, or who is atheist, or who has not a pure disposition, get out from the sacred ceremonies.”

“Citizens’ Assembly … the first day of the Mysteries.”

Obligation to fast during the day: “fasting on the sacred days of the Rarian Demeter” but “because She broke Her fast at nightfall, the initiates time their meal by the appearance of the stars.”

“…to the Mother, the first-born Earth, the Kybeleian Kore said:
…of Demeter…o Zeus who see everything…
o Helios, o Fire who go across all the cities, when
to the Goddesses of victory and to the Goddesses of fate and together with the Moira which oversees all things You appeared,
You increases the brightness, shining Daimon,
with Your dominion; by You everything can be subdued, everything supported,
everything blazed; everywhere we have to endure the works of the Moira.
Lead me, O Fire, to the Mother, if I can resist fasting,
and to accomplish a fast of seven nights, or after the day.
For You I have fasted for seven days, Olympian Zeus and Helios who see everything……”
Sicilian golden tablet- Otto Kern, Orphicorum fragmenta fr. 47

Registration of the initiates and payment of the fees that go to the various Eleusinian priests and priestesses.

(Hesychius, s.v. agyrmos ; Schol. on Aristoph. Ran. 369; Poll. viii. 90; Call. Aetia 10; Ovid Fasti 530)

(Votive relief dedicated to Demeter and Kore by a Hierophant- “on the left Demeter and Kore, in a classicizing style, and on the right the hierophant from Hagnous, in a portrait style, which E.
Harrison characterizes as early Antonine…This relief is the only certain Attic representation of a hierophant, and as such it assumes great importance.” cf. K. Clinton “The Sacred Officials of the Eleusinian Mysteries”)

September 8, 2014 1:05 pm
Τετάρτη Μεσοῦντος/ Τετρὰς ἐπὶ δέκα/ Τεσσαρεκαιδεκάτη, XIV day From today’s sunset: fourteenth day of Boedromion. The epheboi escort back the Sacred objects from Eleusis to the Eleusinion in Athens. “…it must be ordained to the cosmete of the epheboi to lead the youths at Eleusis in observance of the ancient customary rule on the 13th of the month Boedromion, in the usual form of the procession that accompanies the sacred objects, so that on the 14th they accompany back the sacred objects up to the Eleusinion in the City, so that there are more discipline and greater surveillance over the sacred objects, when the phaiduntés of the Two Goddesses, according to the traditions of the Homeland, announces to the priestess of Athena the arrival of the sacred objects and of the escort …” (IG II2 1078) (Detail from a Pompeian altar: Demeter, Apollo and Artemis)

Τετάρτη Μεσοῦντος/ Τετρὰς ἐπὶ δέκα/ Τεσσαρεκαιδεκάτη, XIV day
From today’s sunset: fourteenth day of Boedromion.

The epheboi escort back the Sacred objects from Eleusis to the Eleusinion in Athens.
“…it must be ordained to the cosmete of the epheboi to lead the youths at Eleusis in observance of the ancient customary rule on the 13th of the month Boedromion, in the usual form of the procession that accompanies the sacred objects, so that on the 14th they accompany back the sacred objects up to the Eleusinion in the City, so that there are more discipline and greater surveillance over the sacred objects, when the phaiduntés of the Two Goddesses, according to the traditions of the Homeland, announces to the priestess of Athena the arrival of the sacred objects and of the escort …” (IG II2 1078)

(Detail from a Pompeian altar: Demeter, Apollo and Artemis)

10:31 am
Commento al Timeo - I Libro, 'Atlantide' - IV sezione